Additive Manufacturing in Construction
AMC TRR 277

Research Summary Report

Research Summary Report of B04

Process Control and Adaptive Path Planning for Additive Manufacturing Processes Based on Industrial Robots with an Extended Degree of Freedom [07.02.2024] Raatz, Annika; raatz@match.uni-hannover.de LUH, Institute of Assembly Technology and Robotics Lachmayer, Lukas; lachmayer@match.uni-hannover.de LUH, Institute of Assembly Technology and Robotics Heeren, Hauke; heeren@match.uni-hannover.de LUH, Institute of Assembly Technology and Robotics   Main Goal The research of project B04 is dedicated to extending the current state-of-the-art path planning and process control algorithms for concrete-based additive manufacturing. The objective is to enable reproducible production of multi-material components utilizing mobile robot systems in motion, known as print-while-driving. Achieving this requires precise localization, considering system dynamics, such as acceleration and jerk limitations, as well as accounting for varying material properties and building installation …

Research Summary Report of C01

Bridging Scales – From Geometric Part Details to Construction Elements [02.02.2024] Kollmannsberger, Stefan; stefan.kollmannsberger@tum.de TUM, Computational Modeling and Simulation Bürchner, Tim; tim.buerchner@tum.de TUM, Computational Modeling and Simulation Rank, Ernst; ernst.rank@tum.de TUM, Institute for Advanced Study   Digital models for Additive Manufacturing (AM) must consider many different geometric scales. The scales range from micrometers up to tens of meters for metal- or concrete-based processes and mutually influence each other. Project C01 aims to develop consistent geometric and computational descriptions for the relevant AM products on all these scales. As-built structures naturally deviate from as-designed structures in geometry, topology, and material properties especially in additive manufacturing. The consequences of such deviations upon the structural behaviour are commonly termed the effect of defect. …

Research Summary Report of A03

Extrusion of Near-Nozzle Mixed Concrete – Individually Graded in Density and in Rate of 3D Fibre Reinforcement [1.12.2023] Hechtl, Christian Maximilian, TP editor, m.hechtl@tum.de, TUM, cbm Dr.-Ing. Kränkel, Thomas, PL, thomas.kraenkel@tum.de, TUM, cbm Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gehlen, Christoph, PL, gehlen@tum.de, TUM, cbm   The goal of A03 is to establish a concrete extrusion process using a near nozzle mixing (NNM) approach to enable the gradual variation of material properties during printing (gradation). This approach allows for the creation of multifunctional components, such as structures merging both load bearing and thermally insulating zones, by precisely altering material properties as required throughout the printing process.   Summary and Current State of Research GRES V1 is a gradation-ready extrusion system that demonstrates the potential …

Research Summary Report of A02

Particle-Bed 3D Printing by Selective Cement Paste Intrusion (SPI) – Particle Surface Functionalisation, Particle Synthesis and Integration of WAAM Reinforcement [17.11.2023] Straßer, Alexander, TP editor, alexander.strasser@tum.de, TUM, Chair of Materials Science and Testing Kränkel, Thomas, TP editor, thomas.kraenkel@tum.de, TUM, Chair of Materials Science and Testing Gehlen, Christoph, PL, gehlen@tum.de, TUM, Chair of Materials Science and Testing   The goal of A02 is to implement reinforcement by Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) in concrete elements produced by Selective Paste Intrusion (SPI), see Figure 1. Since the cement paste is applied to the aggregates and must penetrate the cavities between the aggregates by gravity, consistent rheological properties of the cement paste are essential. The welding process with WAAM generates high temperatures …

Research Summary Report of B03

Modelling and Simulation of Shotcrete 3D Printing (SC3DP) Based on a Massively Parallel Multi-Phase, Multi-Component Coupled LBM-DEM Approach [10.11.2023] Kutscher (PostDoc), M. Geier (PI), M. Krafczyk (PI) TU Braunschweig, IRMB   The primary aim of the project is to understand and quantify the dynamic distribution of material components (fluid, air and particles) and kinetic energy inside the jet of liquid concrete present in the shotcrete process. The information is required as a basis for future optimization of the process with regards to process and material parameters as well as for the prediction of material inhomogeneities. Summary In order to overcome the numerical difficulties arising from sustaining a high-density ratio in the diffuse interface lattice Boltzmann model we developed a new …

Research Summary Report of A01

Particle bed 3D printing by selective cement activation: Particle surface functionalization, particle bed compaction and reinforcement integration [03.11.2023] Herding, Friedrich; Researcher, f.herding@ibmb.tu-bs.de Lowke, Dirk; Project leader, lowke@tum.de TU Braunschweig, Institute of Building Materials, Concrete Construction and Fire Safety / Technical University of Munich, Department of Materials Engineering Our main research objective is the fundamental understanding of the material-process interactions in particle bed 3D printing (PB3DP) by Selective Cement Activation (SCA). This will allow for the manufacturing of concrete elements with high mechanical strength and dimensional accuracy. Besides we also investigate different ways of reinforcement integration, which is crucial for the manufacturing of load-bearing building components.   Summary In particle bed 3D printing by Selective Cement Activation, the particle mixture mainly …

Research Summary Report of A02

Particle-Bed 3D Printing by Selective Cement Paste Intrusion (SPI) – Particle Surface Functionalisation, Particle Synthesis and Integration of WAAM Reinforcement [06.10.2023] Hamilton, Leigh Duncan; Researcher; Leigh-Duncan.Hamilton@tu-braunschweig.de Zetzener, Harald; Leading researcher H.Zetzener@tu-braunschweig.de Kwade, Arno; Project leader A.Kwade@tu-braunschweig.de All: TU Braunschweig, Institute for Particle Technology   Our main goal within project A02 is to unite two additive manufacturing (AM) processes, thereby, creating a hybrid AM process for structural concrete. The foundation of A02 is formed around the concrete 3D printing process Selective Paste Intrusion (SPI). SPI creates components in layers by first spreading coarse aggregates (usually quartz) on a surface or previous layer. Subsequently, the cement slurry is applied onto designated areas, where it fills void volumes between aggregate particles. The second …

Research Summary Report of A05

Integration of Individualized Prefabricated Fibre Reinforcement in Additive Manufacturing with Concrete [29.09.2023] Rothe, Tom; Doctoral researcher, t.rothe@tu-braunschweig.de, TU Braunschweig, Institute of Mechanics and Adaptronics (IMA)   Hühne, Christian; Project Leader, Christian.Huehne@tu-braunschweig.de, TU Braunschweig, Institute of Mechanics and Adaptronics (IMA)   Fig 2: Robotic integration of reinforcement into the column of the Shelltonics demonstrator The individual integration of fibre reinforcement into large concrete components produced by Additive Manufacturing allows new design freedoms and reduces concrete consumption due to reduced concrete cover. The project A05 develops strategies to integrate freely formable reinforcement strands for the different AM processes. For doing so, a Dynamic Winding Machine is developed and constantly updated. This machine is used to consolidate and impregnate a primary fibre strand …

Research Summary Report of A04

Integrated Additive Manufacturing Processes for Reinforced Shotcrete 3D Printing (SC3DP) Elements with Precise Surface Quality [30.09.2023] David, Martin; Doctoral Researcher, m.david@tu-braunschweig.de, TU Braunschweig, Institute for Machine Tools and Production Technology (IWF)   Summary and Current state of research Project A04 aims to investigate cooperative Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes based on Shotcrete 3D Printing (SC3DP) for the production of material-efficient, force-optimised, reinforced, load-bearing concrete components with precise surface quality and geometrical precision. The goal is to produce large-scale concrete elements using significantly lower amounts of reinforcement and concrete as compared to standard concrete construction principles. Hereby, different robot guided end effectors are subject to research in a flexible and automated process chain. Currently, the following key points are researched by the …

Research Summary Report of A07

Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) of Complex Individualized Steel Components [08.09.2023] Jahns, Hendrik; Doctoral researcher; h.jahns@stahlbau.tu-braunschweig.de Unglaub, Julian; Principle Investigator j.unglaub@stahlbau.tu-braunschweig.de Thiele, Klaus; Principle Investigator k.thiele@stahlbau.tu-braunschweig.de Institute of Steel Structures Technische Universität Braunschweig     Project – main goal In project A07 the design, manufacturing and mechanical properties of complex individualized WAAM steel nodes for use in construction is investigated. A new method is developed to design force flow optimized steel nodes as connectors between semi-finished parts and anchorage structures considering the manufacturing possibilities of the WAAM-process and the resulting material behavior. The manufacturing possibilities will be identified by case study demonstrators, which represent occurring features of the designed node. The produced parts are characterized regarding their mechanical properties. …

Research Summary Report of A06

Laser Powder-Bed Fusion (LPBF) of Steel Elements for Construction – Basics of Design and Mechanical Resilience [22.09.2023] Wenzler, David; doctoral researcher; david.wenzler@tum.de Technical University of Munich, Institute for Machine Tools and Industrial Management Diller, Johannes; doctoral researcher; johannes.diller@tum.de, Siebert, Dorina; doctoral researcher; dorina.siebert@tum.de Technical University of Munich, Chair of Metal Structures   Project The project A06 aims to explore and evaluate the factors influencing the manufacturing of safe and durable structural steel elements by laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF). Thereby, the LPBF process, the post-treatment, and the influence of the part geometry on the microstructure and the mechanical properties will be investigated. From the results, correlations between these aspects will be determined. In the 1st funding period, the project focuses on …

Research Summary Report of A08

Structural Timber by Individual Layer Fabrication (ILF) [01.09.2023] Asshoff, Carsten; Doctoral researcher; carsten.asshoff@wki.fraunhofer.de Fraunhofer Institute for Wood Research Wilhelm-Klauditz-Institut WKI     Main goal The main goal of the project ’A08 – Structural Timber by Individual Layer Fabrication (ILF)’ is to develop a process to additively manufacture large-scale, wood composite objects with a maximum content of wood material and strength values suited for applications in construction. In the course of the project multiple process variants and material combinations are explored. For this, the necessary machinery is developed in iterative steps and the mechanical properties of the resulting objects as well as the geometric capacity of the processes are investigated. Finally, multiple demonstrators are fabricated for showcase purposes.   Summary Working …

Research Summary Report of B04

Process Control and Adaptive Path Planning for Additive Manufacturing Processes Based on Industrial Robots with an Extended Degree of Freedom [26.08.2023] Ekanayaka, Virama; Doctoral researcher, v.ekanayaka@tu-braunschweig.de, TU Braunschweig, Institute of Machine Tools and Production Technology (IWF) Hürkamp, André; Project Leader, a.huerkamp@tu-braunschweig.de, TU Braunschweig, Institute of Machine Tools and Production Technology (IWF)   Main goal The integration of robot-guided additive manufacturing in the construction industry increases the degree of automation and can thus lead to an increased productivity and increased component quality. In shotcrete 3D printing (SC3DP), reproducible manufacturing results and ensuring component quality are major challenges, as the properties of shotcrete depend on many different parameters (e.g. temperature, pressure, water-cement ratio, hardening accelerator). The goal of this research project is …

Research Summary Report of C03

Integration of Passive and Active Functions in Additively Manufactured Construction Elements [25.08.2023] Auer, Thomas; PL, thomas.auer@tum.de * Briels, David; doctoral researcher, david.briels@tum.de * Nouman, Ahmad; doctoral researcher, ahmad.nouman@tum.de * all: Technical University of Munich, TUM School of Engineering and Design, Chair of Building Technology and Climate Responsive Design   Main goal To fully leverage the potential of additive manufacturing (AM) processes explored within the AMC, a fundamental shift in the design of building elements is necessary. Through the capabilities of AM, we can create highly specialized components that seamlessly integrate and enhance both passive and active functions, encompassing building physics (such as heat transfer and acoustics) and building services (including heating, cooling, and ventilation). Our overarching goal is to achieve …

Research Summary Report of C06

Integration of Additive Manufacturing in the Construction Process [18.08.2023] Mawas, Karam; Doctoral researcher, k.mawas@tu-braunschweig.de Gerke, Markus; Project leader, m.gerke@tu-braunschweig.de Maboudi, Mehdi; Associated scientist, m.maboudi@tu-braunschweig.de all: TU Braunschweig, Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry (IGP)   Main goal To guarantee adherence to a resilient process and faithful realization of the designed model in the printed object, it is essential to implement ongoing and automated data capture and process inspection. Additionally, quality control plays a pivotal role in enabling the seamless integration of components into objects. Summary An essential phase within 3D printing is quality assurance. Incorporating automated quality control into the production cycle can significantly augment productivity. With the rapid construction capabilities offered by 3D concrete printing (3DCP), upholding stringent quality standards …

Research Summary Report of A03

Extrusion of Near-Nozzle Mixed Concrete – Individually Graded in Density and in Rate of 3D Fibre Reinforcement [06.08.2023] M.Sc. Dahlenburg, Maximilian; TP editor, maximilian.dahleburg@tum.de, TUM, Chair of Materials Handling, Material Flow, Logistics Prof. Dr.-Ing. Fottner, Johannes; Project leader, j.fottner@tum.de, TUM, Chair of Materials Handling, Material Flow, Logistics   Main Goal The main goal of A03 is to establish a novel concrete extrusion process using a near nozzle mixing (NNM) process to enable the change and non-discrete gradation of material and its properties during printing. With this approach, multi-functional and multi-material parts can be printed, with an overall higher building rate due to a lower workability demand of the process and higher structuration rates of the used materials. Printed parts can thus simultaneously fulfil load-bearing …

Research Summary Report of A01

Particle-bed 3D printing by selective cement activation: Particle surface functionalization, particle bed compaction and reinforcement [21.07.2023] Meier, Niklas; Researcher, niklas.meier@tu-braunschweig.de Zetzener, Harald; Leading researcher, h.zetzener@tu-braunschweig.de Kwade, Arno; Project Leader, a.kwade@tu-braunschweig.de all: TU Braunschweig, Institute for particle technology   The main goal of our research in project A01 is to improve the mechanical strength and shape accuracy of the printed concrete parts as well as the printing speed. While our work at the iPAT is improving the powder properties the project partner iBMB focuses on the material-process interaction. Summary Previous research has shown, that a higher packing density of the particle bed leads to an increase in compressive strength. On the one side the process parameter during printing e.g. compaction heigt …

Research Summary Report of C04

Integrating Digital Design and Additive Manufacturing through BIM-Based Decision Support and Digital Twin Methods [14.07.2023] Li, Chao; doctoral researcher, chao1.li@tum.de Petzold, Frank; PL, petzold@tum.de Technical University of Munich, TUM School of Engineering and Design, Chair of Architectural Informatics   The application of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology requires careful consideration of AM methods‘ boundary conditions. Determining suitable AM methods is critical during the early design stages since changes in design are costly when design becomes more mature. To this end, WP1 of sub-project C04 aims to develop a design decision support system (DDSS) that assists architects and engineers in choosing feasible AM methods for BIM-based design. To achieve this, a knowledge base is formalized, which consists of information on different AM …

Research Summary Report of A04

Integrated Additive Manufacturing Processes for Reinforced Shotcrete 3D Printing (SC3DP) Elements with Precise Surface Quality [07.07.2023] Rudolph, Jennifer; doctoral researcher, j.rudolph@ibmb.tu-bs.de Freund, Niklas; doctoral researcher, n.freund@ibmb.tu-bs.de Lowke, Dirk; project leader, d.lowke@ibmb.tu-bs.de all: TU Braunschweig, Institute of Building Materials and Concrete Construction and Fire Safety (iBMB)   Summary Project A04 investigates cooperative Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes based on Shotcrete 3D Printing (SC3DP) for the production of material-efficient, force-optimised, reinforced, load-bearing concrete components with precise surface quality and high geometric precision. The goal is to produce large-scale concrete elements using significantly lower amounts of reinforcement and concrete as compared to standard concrete construction principles. Current state of research Reinforcement integration is one of the key topics of current research in the field …

Research Summary Report of C05

Jointing Principles for Combination of Concrete Elements Produced by Different Additive Manufacturing Processes [19.05.2023] Empelmann, Martin; Project Leader,             m.empelmann@ibmb.tu-bs.de Lanwer, Jan-Paul; Doctoral Researcher,         j.lanwer@ibmb.tu-bs.de TU Braunschweig, Institute of Building Materials, Concrete Construction and Fire Safety (iBMB), Division of Concrete Construction   The C05 project deals with the design, the manufacturing and the calculation of suitable connections for segmental AM-components. Principally, the connections should be based on the dry joint approach manufactured by subtractive post-processing. Alternatively, they could be also directly printed with the segment. The joint design should be efficient in production, apply for all AM-processes (SC3DP, Extrusion, Particle bed) and bear combined normal and shear stresses. Summary The selected joint profiles from the so-called joint catalogue (see Reference) …

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