Additive Manufacturing in Construction
AMC TRR 277

Research Summary Report

Research Summary Report of B05

Principles of Mobile Robotics for Additive Manufacturing in Construction [21.10.2022] Dielemans, Gido; Doctoral researcher, gido.dielemans@tum.de, Technical University of Munich, Department of Architecture, TT Professorship Digital Fabrication   Main goal This research examines the architectural implications of mobile robotics for AM in construction and develops methods for their implementation. The material deposition method of clay and concrete extrusion 3D printing is used to investigate mobile part-based AM strategies, that is, to produce large objects whose size exceeds the static workspace of the robot. By implementing advanced sensor and control solutions, autonomous localization and precise manipulation techniques for mobile AM are explored. In addition, this research aims to provide scalability to AM processes by examining the use of multiple robots to collaborate …

Research Summary Report of A08

Structural Timber by Individual Layer Fabrication (ILF) [14.11.2022] Buschmann, Birger; Doctoral researcher, birger.buschmann@tum.de, Talke, Daniel; Doctoral researcher, talke@tum.de Henke, Klaudius; Project leader, henke@tum.de Technical University of Munich, Chair of Timber Structures and Building Construction   Main goal The main goal of the project ‘A08 -Structural Timber by Individual Layer Fabrication (ILF)’ is to develop a process to additively manufacture large-scale, wood composite objects with a maximum content of wood material and strength values suited for applications in construction. In the course of the project multiple process variants and material combinations are explored. For this, the necessary machinery is developed in iterative steps and the mechanical properties of the resulting objects as well as the geometric capacity of the processes are …

Research Summary Report of A04

Integrated Additive Manufacturing Processes for Reinforced Shotcrete 3D Printing (SC3DP) Elements with Precise Surface Quality [11.11.2022] Freund, Niklas; doctoral researcher, n.freund@ibmb.tu-bs.de Lowke, Dirk; project leader, d.lowke@ibmb.tu-bs.de all: TU Braunschweig, Institute of Building Materials and Concrete Construction and Fire Safety (iBMB)   Main goal Project A04 investigates cooperative Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes based on Shotcrete 3D Printing (SC3DP) for the production of material-efficient, force-optimized, reinforced, load-bearing concrete components with precise surface quality and high geometric precision. The goal is to produce large-scale concrete elements using significantly lower amounts of reinforcement and concrete as compared to standard concrete construction principles. Summary In SC3DP applications, the precise control of rheological material properties represents a necessity. Here, data based rheological material models are required …

Research Summary Report of A05

Integration of Individualized Prefabricated Fibre Reinforcement in Additive Manufacturing with Concrete [02.11.2022] Gantner, Stefan; Scientific Researcher, stefan.gantner@tu-bs.de, TU Braunschweig, Institute of Structural Design (ITE)   Summary Cement-based additive manufacturing techniques need to be enhanced by the ability of integrating reinforcement, in order to fulfil requirements of construction. This project focuses on non-metallic continuous fibre reinforcement, which is not only corrosion resistant but also flexible in handling. Instead of bending and welding, glass or carbon fibre rovings can be processed by winding onto a support structure. Based on three fundamental AM-principles, namely material jetting and extrusion, as well as particle bed printing, a set of winding concepts for integrating reinforcement has been developed. Within a holistic framework all relevant aspects from …

Research Summary Report of A02

Particle-Bed 3D Printing by Selective Cement Paste Intrusion (SPI) – Particle Surface Functionalisation, Particle Synthesis and Integration of WAAM Reinforcement [28.10.2022] Riegger, Felix; Doctoral researcher; Felix.Riegger@iwb.tum.de Wimmer, Andreas; Head of the research group; Andreas.Wimmer@iwb.tum.de All: Technical University of Munich, Institute for Machine Tools and Industrial Management   Main goal The main goal of project A02 is the implementation of reinforcement with Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) in concrete elements produced by Selective Paste Intrusion (SPI) by means of a simultaneously additive manufacturing process. The combination of SPI and WAAM is accompanied by obstacles that must be overcome to ensure the collaborated functionality. One major challenge occurs from the high energy input of WAAM (temperatures up to 1600 °C), which …

Research Summary Report of C06

Integration of Additive Manufacturing in the Construction Process [06.10.2022] Placzek, Gerrit; Doctoral researcher, g.placzek@tu-braunschweig.de TU Braunschweig, IBB     Main goal The integration of additive manufacturing into construction requires an interdisciplinary approach. The different competences of the team – digital fabrication in architecture (Hack), geodesy and photogrammetry (Gerke) and construction management (Schwerdtner) – lead to research from diverse perspectives on the various scalar levels of construction to be viewed holistically: component, building and industry scale. Within Subproject C06, our goal is to create a continuous digital and lean-based process chain from design (using BIM method) to fabrication (using AM method). Based on process models, we investigate construction processes and how to change them into a construction industry 4.0. Summary The …

Research Summary Report A07

Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) of complex individualized steel components [30.09.2022] Müller, Johanna; doctoral researcher johanna.mueller@tu-braunschweig.de TU Braunschweig, Institute of Joining and Welding     Main goal The aim of TP A07 is the design, the manufacturing and the testing of complex individualized steel components by means of WAAM. That contains the fundamental investigation of design and the design process for WAAM components. For the manufacturing of steel components by WAAM, stable and reliable processes for basic geometries are qualified and based on that, case study demonstrators for the identification of manufacturing restraints are fabricated. Furthermore, a novel approach for material and component testing is developed to identify local material and component properties. Summary The aim of WG Hensel …

Research Summary Report C05

Jointing Principles for Combination of Concrete Elements Produced by Different Additive Manufacturing Processes [23.09.2022] Empelmann, Martin; Project Leader,            m.empelmann@ibmb.tu-bs.de Weigel, Hendrik; Doctoral Researcher,         h.weigel@ibmb.tu-bs.de TU Braunschweig, Institute of Building Materials, Concrete Construction and Fire Safety (iBMB), Division of Concrete Construction   Main goal The main goal of the C05 project is gaining fundamental knowledge for the design of dry joints in AM components. Therefore, the correlation between the execution and manufacturing on the load-bearing behaviour of dry joints will be investigated. Many different joint geometries are gathered, compared and evaluated by experimental testing and numerical methods. Summary The selected joint profiles from the so-called joint catalogue (see last RSR) are tested in terms of their compressive load-bearing behaviour. The …

Research Summary Report A06

Laser Powder-Bed Fusion (LPBF) of Steel Elements for Construction – Basics of Design and Mechanical Resilience [16.09.2022] Wenzler, David; Doctoral researcher; david.wenzler@tum.de Technical University of Munich, Institute for Machine Tools and Industrial Management Diller, Johannes; Doctoral researcher; johannes.diller@tum.de, Siebert, Dorina; Doctoral researcher; dorina.siebert@tum.de Technical University of Munich, Chair of Metal Structures The project A06 aims to explore and evaluate the factors influencing the manufacturing of safe and durable structural steel elements by Powder Bed Fusion of Metals using a Laser Beam (PBF-LB/M). Thereby, the PBF-LB/M process, the post-treatment, and the geometrical aspects in terms of microstructure and mechanical properties are investigated and correlations are determined. In the first funding period, the project is focused on analyzing small-scale specimens as well …

Research Summary Report C02

3D Structural Puzzle – Numerical Multi Scale Shape and Topology Optimisation Methods to Additively Manufacture Optimal Structures from Optimised Pieces [01.09.2022] Dr.-Ing. Reza Najian Asl (reza.najian-asl@tum.de); Prof. Dr.-Ing Kai-Uwe Bletzinger; TUM, Chair of Structural Analysis Current state of research Additive manufacturing in construction is a real enabler for the creation of optimal structures. It breaks the limitations of classical construction and provides the possibility of design and optimization for every feature and property of the structure, especially material and shape. To that end, a simulation-based  optimization tool has been developed at the Chair of Structural Analysis, TU Munich. The tool is implemented in the Kratos-Multiphysics open-source frame work and has the following state of the art features: (a) efficient and …

Research Summary Report A04

Integrated Additive Manufacturing Processes for Reinforced Shotcrete 3D Printing (SC3DP) Elements with Precise Surface Quality [26.08.2022] Dörrie, Robin: doctoral researcher, r.doerrie@tu-braunschweig.de, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institut für Tragwerksentwurf Within this project, basic research on various Shotcrete 3D Printing (SC3DP) strategies, materials, tools and methods will be conducted with regard to enhanced material and process control, reinforcement integration, surface quality and automation. To that end, different reinforcement materials in combination with suitable reinforcement manufacturing and integration concepts will be investigated based on force-flow optimised reinforcement alignment. Besides, design strategies as well as material and process control will be investigated in detail. Furthermore, tools and strategies for precise control of the surface quality and geometric resolution of SC3DP elements are subject of research. …

Research Summary Report A03

Extrusion of Near-Nozzle Mixed Concrete –Individually Graded in Density and in Rate of 3D Fibre Reinforcement [26.08.2022] Hechtl, Christian Maximilian, TP editor, m.hechtl@tum.de, TUM, Chair of Materials Science and Testing (cbm) Dr.-Ing. Matthäus, Carla, TP editor, c.matthaeus@tum.de, TUM, cbm Dr.-Ing. Kränkel, Thomas, PL, thomas.kraenkel@tum.de, TUM, cbm Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gehlen, Christoph, PL, gehlen@tum.de, TUM, cbm   The goal of A03 is to establish a concrete extrusion process using a near nozzle mixing approach to enable the change of material properties while printing (gradation). With this approach multifunctional components can be realized. For example, a component can simultaneously fulfill load-bearing and thermal insulation functions by locally changing the material properties. Current state of research The second iteration of the Gradation-ready Extrusion System …

Research Summary Report C01

Bridging Scales – From Geometric Part Details to Construction Elements [16.08.2022] Kollmannsberger, Stefan; PL, stefan.kollmannsberger@tum.de, TUM, CMS Rank, Ernst; PL, ernst.rank@tum.de, TUM, Institute for Advanced Study Oztoprak, Oguz; WiMi, oguz.oztoprak@tum.de, TUM, CMS   Digital models for Additive Manufacturing (AM) must consider many different geometric scales. The scales range from micrometers up to tens of meters for metal- or concrete-based processes. The TP C01 aims to develop consistent geometric and computational descriptions for the relevant AM products on all of these scales. Based on the multiscale geometric models developed in earlier phases of this research project, we are now focusing on efficient simulation methods for AM products in construction with special emphasis on validation of the developed techniques. Summary The advances …

Research Summary Report B04

Process Control and Adaptive Path Planning for Additive Manufacturing Processes Based on Industrial Robots with an Extended Degree of Freedom [19.08.2022] Lachmayer, Lukas; Doctoral researcher, lachmayer@match.uni-hannover.de Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institute of Assembly Technology (match) Function integration, topology optimization and automation increase productivity through the reduced workload, sustainability by less applied material and safety by decreasing manual labour. These benefits are condensed in most additive manufacturing processes, and thus, these are of significant interest to the construction industry. However, the time- and environment-dependent material properties of fresh concrete reduce the predictability of the material and thus often lead to component collapses during the manufacturing process. This project aims to achieve repeatability within concrete-based robot-guided additive manufacturing processes. Summary As expected and …

Research Summary Report A02

Particle-Bed 3D Printing by Selective Cement Paste Intrusion (SPI) – Particle Surface Functionalisation, Particle Synthesis and Integration of WAAM Reinforcement [09.08.2022] Straßer, Alexander, TP editor, alexander.strasser@tum.de, TUM, Chair of Materials Science and Testing Matthäus, Carla, TP editor, c.matthaeus.@tum.de, TUM, Chair of Materials Science and Testing Kränkel, Thomas, TP editor, thomas.kraenkel@tum.de, TUM, Chair of Materials Science and Testing Gehlen, Christoph, PL, gehlen@tum.de, TUM, Chair of Materials Science and Testing The goal of A02 is to implement reinforcement by Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) in concrete elements produced by Selective Paste Intrusion (SPI), see Figure 1. Since the cement paste is applied to the aggregates and must penetrate the cavities between the aggregates by gravity, consistent rheological properties of the cement …

Research Summary Report B03

Modelling and Simulation of Shotcrete 3D Printing (SC3DP) Based on a Massively Parallel Multi-Phase, Multi-Component Coupled LBM-DEM Approach [26.07.2022] Kutscher, Konstantin; Researcher Geier, Martin; Project leader Krafczyk, Manfred; Project leader all: TU Braunschweig, Institut für rechnergestützte Modellierung im Bauingenieurwesen (IRMB) B03 goals The primary aim of the project is to understand and quantify the dynamic distribution of material components (fluid, air and particles) and kinetic energy inside the jet of liquid concrete present in the shotcrete process. The information is required as a basis for future optimization of the process with regards to process and material parameters as well as for the prediction of material inhomogeneities. Summary The application of the conservative phase field method to the modeling of droplets …

Research Summary Report A01

Particle-Bed 3D Printing by Selective Cement Activation (SCA) – Particle Surface Functionalisation, Particle-Bed Compaction and Reinforcement Implementation [15.07.2022] Herding, Friedrich; Researcher, f.herding@ibmb.tu-bs.de Mai, Inka; Leading researcher, i.mai@ibmb.tu-bs.de Lowke, Dirk; Project leader, d.lowke@ibmb.tu bs.de all: TU Braunschweig, Institute of Building Materials, Concrete Construction and Fire Safety (iBMB) The main objective of our research in TP A01 is to understand the material-process-interactions in particle bed 3D printing by Selective Cement Activation (SCA) in order to produce concrete elements with high mechanical strength and geometric precision. Besides, we are also investigating different ways of reinforcement integration, which is crucial for the manufacturing of load-bearing building components. Summary In Particle Bed 3D Printing (PB3DP) by Selective Cement Activation the water to cement ratio (w/c‑ratio) …

Research Summary Report C05

Jointing Principles for Combination of Concrete Elements Produced by Different Additive Manufacturing Processes [12.07.2022] The Technical University of Braunschweig, Institute of Structural Design (ITE) Prof. Dr. Harald Kloft.eng (ITE) Prof. Dr. Martin Empelmann.eng (iBMB)  Author: Abtin Baghdadi a.baghdadi@tu-braunschweig.de Researchers: Jan-Paul Lanwer, Hendrik Weigel  (iBMB), Abtin Baghdadi (ITE) This project, as close cooperation between ITE and iBMB (Concrete-Construction) by subtractive robotic process, aims to investigate the jointing principle to combine different additively manufactured elements. C05 investigates the execution process and load-bearing capacity of the concrete milled dry joints, considering different concrete printing techniques to be utilized in the construction of prefabricated structures. Accordingly, C05 mainly investigates the application of the post-processing grinding technique (milling and cutting) for developing innovative connections and …

Research Summary Report C04

Integrating Digital Design and Additive Manufacturing through BIM-Based Decision Support and Digital Twin Methods [05.07.2022] Borrmann, André, Project leader, andre.borrmann@tum.de, Technical University of Munich, Chair of Computational Modeling and Simulation; Slepicka, Martin, Researcher, martin.slepicka@tum.de, Technical University of Munich, Chair of Computational Modeling and Simulation; Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) methods, such as Additive Manufacturing (AM), are becoming increasingly popular in the construction industry, since they offer more geometrical freedom than conventional methods. However, more complex data preparation is required for these methods and thus they have been considered separately from digital design so far. To increase the usefulness of AM for the industry, this project aims to integrate AM methods into the digital design methodology BIM. To achieve this, a framework …

Research Summary Report A05

Integration of Individualized Prefabricated Fibre Reinforcement in Additive Manufacturing with Concrete [10.06.2022] Rothe, Tom; Doctoral researcher, t.rothe@tu-braunschweig.de, TU Braunschweig, Institute for Mechanics and Adaptronics (IMA) Prof. Hühne, Christian; Project Leader, Christian.Huehne@tu-braunschweig.de, TU Braunschweig, Institute for Mechanics and Adaptronics (IMA)  The individual integration of fibre reinforcement into large concrete components produced by Additive Manufacturing (AM) allows new design freedoms and reduces concrete consumption due to the lower cover height. The project A05 develops strategies to integrate freely formable reinforcement strands for the different AM processes of the AMC. For doing so, a Dynamic Winding Machine is developed and constantly updated. Thus, fibre strands can be adapted for different purposes and enables more efficient and easier production of highly customised, reinforced concrete …