Additive Manufacturing in Construction

Project A 04

Networking with other projects

Integrated Additive Manufacturing Processes for Reinforced Shotcrete 3D Printing (SC3DP) Elements with Precise Surface Quality

Within this project, basic research on various SC3DP strategies, materials, tools and methods will be conducted with regard to enhanced material and process control, reinforcement integration, surface quality and automation. To that end, different reinforcement materials in combination with suitable reinforcement manufacturing and integration concepts will be investigated based on force-flow optimised reinforcement alignment. Besides, design strategies as well as material and process control will be investigated in detail. Furthermore, tools and strategies for precise control of the surface quality and geometric resolution of SC3DP elements are subject of research. Finally, strategies, materials and tools elaborated within the project will be synergistically combined and validated at large scale.


  • Material efficiency by force flow optimized design
  • Integration of reinforcement
  • Precise geometry and high surface quality
  • Material and process control
  • Cooperative fabrication
  • Process automation


  • Creating a digital model of the printing process
  • Investigating force-flow-compliant reinforcement systems
  • Developing material and process control algorithms
  • Inventing suitable tools and end effectors
  • Monitoring of process and material parameters
  • Investigating and modelling rheological material properties as a function of shear history

Networking with other projects

The A04 Project is linked to many other projects on three different Layers. Firstly, the process of SC3DP serves especially the C-Projects as basis for their research as A04 provides test-specimens and data of 3D-printed concrete e.g. for milling connections in C05. Secondly, A04 cooperates with B03 and B04 to monitor the process and its parameters to make it more stable and develop simulations of the process. Lastly, the A-Projects themselves exchange process parameters and techniques for reinforcement integration methods for e.g. post processing of concrete or end effector designs.

Project leaders

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Dröder Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Kloft Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dirk Lowke


Dr.-Ing. Abtin Baghdadi M. Sc. David Böhler M. Sc. Martin David M. Sc. Robin Dörrie M. Sc. Niklas Freund M. Sc. Anna Marie Opolka M. Sc. Jennifer Rudolph

Related Publications

The effects of nozzle diameter and length on the resulting strand properties for shotcrete 3D printing Automated force-flow-oriented reinforcement integration for Shotcrete 3D Printing Shotcrete 3D Printing – Interaction of nozzle geometry, homogeneity and hardened concrete properties Shotcrete 3D Printing – Effect of material-process interaction on the global and local material density Combined Additive Manufacturing Techniques for Adaptive Coastline Protection Structures Force-Flow compliant robotic path planning approach for reinforced concrete elements Implementation of a surrogate model for a novel path-based finite element simulation for additive manufacturing processes in construction Bewehrungskonzepte beim 3D-Druck von Konstruktionsbeton Digital Fabrication with Cement-Based Materials: Process Classification and Case Studies Structural Design and Testing of Digitally Manufactured Concrete Structures Interlayer Reinforcement in Shotcrete-3D-Printing: The Effect of Accelerator Dosage on the Resulting Bond Behavior of Integrated Reinforcement Bars Large Particle 3D Concrete Printing – A Green and Viable Solution Integrating reinforcement in digital fabrication with concrete: A review and classification framework Automated shotcrete 3D printing – Printing interruption for extended component complexity New calculation approach for selecting and orienting the reinforcing material for robotic concrete manufacturing Injection 3D concrete printing in a carrier liquid – Underlying physics and applications to lightweight space frame structures Bewehrungskonzepte beim 3D-Druck von Konstruktionsbeton Dauerhaftigkeit – Potenzial additiver Fertigung und Performance im Vergleich zu konventioneller Fertigung Additive Fertigung im Bauwesen: 3D-Betondruck als eine Schlüsseltechnologie für die Digitalisierung der Bauwirtschaft Influence of process parameters on the interlayer bond strength of concrete elements additive manufactured by Shotcrete 3D Printing (SC3DP) Bewehrungsstrategien für den Beton-3D-Druck Studying the Bond Properties of Vertical Integrated Short Reinforcement in the Shotcrete 3D Printing Process Control of Strand Properties Produced with Shotcrete 3D Printing by Accelerator Dosage amd Process Parameters Experimental and numerical assessment of new precast concrete connections under bending loads A process classification framework for defining and describing Digital Fabrication with Concrete The Effect of Accelerator Dosage on Fresh Concrete Properties and on Interlayer Strength in Shotcrete 3D Printing Herausforderungen für einen traditionellen Werkstoff auf dem Weg in die Zukunft – Digitaler Beton. Injection 3D Concrete Printing (I3DCP): Basic Principles and Case Studies.

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