Additive Manufacturing in Construction

Project A 07

Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) of Complex Individualized Steel Components

Project A07 investigates structural design, WAAM methods and component testing of complex, large-scale, individualized steel components. The objective is to connect conventionally manufactured steel components and semi-finished products with additively manufactured, complex steel components, like connection nodes or anchorage structures for concrete. The research program is based on innovative design and manufacturing methodologies that take both additive manufacturing parameters and material properties into account. The evaluation of the WAAM components follows a novel test method, which considers potentially anisotropic component behavior, surface topographies, geometric irregularities and residual stresses in addition to the relevant material properties.


The objective of TP A07 is the design, the manufacturing and the testing of force flow optimized steel nodes for use in construction.


A new method is developed to design force flow optimized steel nodes as connectors between semi-finished parts and anchorage structures considering the manufacturing possibilities of the WAAM-process and the resulting material behaviour. The manufacturing possibilities will be identified by case study demonstrators which represent occurring features of the designed node. The produced parts are characterized regarding their mechanical properties. For that an advanced material testing method is applied to evaluate the potentially anisotropic material behaviour. With buckling tests on case study demonstrators the component behaviour will be investigated.

Networking with other projects

  • A04: The bond behavior of WAAM-rebars in concrete is investigated. Bars with varying cross sections were produced in order to maintain different surface topographies.

  • A06: The possibilities of combining the two AM processes LPBF and WAAM were investigated by conducting tensile tests and characterizing the fusion zone
  • C04: coordination of a structure for the digital twin and management of input data

Project leaders

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jonas Hensel Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Kloft Dr.-Ing. Julian Unglaub


Dr. Kevin Höfer M. Sc. Hendrik Jahns M. Sc. Florian Jurke Dr.-Ing. Lukas Ledderose M. Sc. Marc Müggenburg

Related Publications

Material Behavior of High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel (HSLA) WAAM Walls in Construction WAAM of structural components—building strategies for varying wall thicknesses Design of Structural Steel Components According to Manufacturing Possibilities of the Robot-Guided DED-Arc Process The effects of building position on surface and fatigue of DED-arc steel components. Surface quality parameters for structural components manufactured by DED-arc processes Surface quality parameters for structural components manufactured by DED-arc processes Einfluss von Geometrie- und Fertigungsrestriktionen auf die mechanische Festigkeit von WAAM-Bauteilen Mechanical properties of wire and arc additively manufactured high-strength steel structures Schweißtechnische Verarbeitung von hochfestem Stahl als Aufbauwerkstoff beim Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing Vom WAAM-Bauteil zum WAAM-Bauwerk

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