Additive Manufacturing in Construction

Project B 03

Modelling and Simulation of Shotcrete 3D Printing (SC3DP) Based on a Massively Parallel Multi-Phase, Multi-Component Coupled LBM-DEM Approach

In this project we develop a coupled simulation approach for the shotcrete process to predict the performance of a specific shotcrete nozzle geometry and the resulting jet dynamics as a function of the additive mixing within the nozzle and during the jet propagation. The model includes multiple components and phases as well as individual grains which are being advected with the mixture. A realistic stress-strain relationship is being developed to recover the correct non-Newtonian behaviour of the mixture including its thixotropic properties. The fully coupled simulation will serve to predict the behaviour of the shotcrete printer to be developed in A04.


  • Design of an Allen-Cahn phase-field two phase model (liquid/gas) based on a velocity pressure formulation with fourth order convergent cumulant method.
  • Incorporation of arbitrary constitutive relations for stress and strain in the liquid phase domain for modelling the complex rheology of the cement paste.
  • Incorporation of a DEM particle model for solid aggregates into the Allen-Cahn model; design of an immersed boundary model in the multi-phase multi-component framework.
  • Implementation of the above models in the massively parallel IRMB research code VirtualFluids and validation of the simulation framework against experimental data.


  • Implementation of a Bingham fluid model in a three-dimensional cumulant lattice Boltzmann framework.
  • Implementation of a multiphase model based on velocity formulation and pressure filter
  • Coupling of DEM-framework LIGGGHTS with VirtualFluids

Networking with other projects

  • Support B01 with expertise in LBM and VirtualFluids

Cooperation with A04 for following topics:

  • Virtual rheometer and material parameters.
  • Simulation and analysis of fluid mixing before nozzle exit.
  • Simulation of shotcrete dynamics for Demonstrator A04

Project leaders

Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Martin Geier Prof. Dr.-Ing. Manfred Krafczyk


Dr.-Ing. Konstantin Kutscher

Related Publications

Under-resolved and large eddy simulations of a decaying Taylor-Green vortex with the cumulant lattice Boltzmann method Computation of Implicit Representation of Volumetric Shells with Predefined Thickness A Direct Effective Viscosity Approach for Modeling and Simulating Bingham Fluids with the Cumulant Lattice Boltzmann Method The lattice Boltzmann method for nearly incompressible flows