Additive Manufacturing in Construction
AMC TRR 277

Research

Focus area A “Materials and Processes”

Focus area A “Materials and Processes” centres on the investigation of basic principles for the development from scratch of unique AMC processes for concrete, steel, and timber. As mentioned above, the innovation potential of the proposal is based primarily on the merging of material and process developments produced in interdisciplinary research teams.
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Based on the state of research and the results of preliminary research projects carried out by the applicants, two groups of additive manufacturing technologies are considered promising for implementation in construction: (1) particle-bed 3D printing techniques and (2) deposition 3D printing techniques.
Particle-bed 3D printing techniques include selective cement activation (SCA) (A01) and selective paste intrusion (SPI) (A02) for concrete, as well as selective laser melting (SLM) (A06) for steel and individual layer fabrication (A08) for timber. Among the deposition techniques, extrusion 3D printing (A03) and shotcrete 3D printing (SC3DP) (A04) for concrete, as well as wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) (A07) for steel are considered.

Focus Area B “Computational Modelling and Control”

The experimentally driven investigations of focus area A ‘Materials and Processes‘ are enhanced by the corresponding projects of focus area B ‘Computational Modelling and Control’. All AM processes will be developed by taking into account assigned digital feedback obtained by computational modelling and process control.
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The aim of focus area B is the development of novel models and efficient discretisation schemes for numerical simulation of material–process interactions relevant to additive manufacturing processes in construction.
From the modelling point of view, the focus is on the rheological behaviour of concrete during extrusion (B02, B03) and on the thermo-mechanical behaviour of steel during selective laser melting (B01). On the computational side, a suite of discretisation procedures will be developed, including DEM, FEM, and Lattice Boltzmann methods. Additionally, the coupling of multiple discretisation techniques will be required due to the complexity of the described phenomena.
During the first funding period, primarily A projects A03, A04 and A07, for which sufficient information about the material behaviour is available from preliminary research, will be supported with modelling and simulations (B01-B03). In the course of the second funding period, the area of computational modelling will be expanded to all A projects. Furthermore, a special focus will be on process control and path planning for the robot-assisted AM techniques. Therefore, project B04 is tied to the robotic manufacturing methods of projects A04 and A05. Project B 05 is related to project A03. Kathrin Dörfler, freshly appointed professor for Digital Fabrication at TU Munich, will focus on the integration of mobile robots in the extrusion-based AM process of A03 by investigating the principles of mobile robotics for AM and the potential opportunities that these processes can bring to on-site construction.

Focus area C “Design and Construction”

Focus area C “Design and Construction” addresses the most important subjects related to the implementation of additive manufacturing in the process chain of design and construction. The interaction between digital models and physical objects forms the methodical relationship within TRR 277 and connects the focus areas A and C.
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This “digital/real relationship” will be addressed by physical demonstration objects with assigned digital twins (digital/real demonstrators).
This focus area provides feedback to the A projects by investigating novel design techniques and structural optimisation (C01, C02) as well as innovative assembling principles for additively manufactured structural elements (C05).
Project C 03 can be considered as a first attempt to integrate extended functions from the area of technical building equipment, building physics, and energy aspects. This research area will be expanded in the following funding periods.
Any information about building information modelling (BIM) will converge in project C04. The central research question of C04 is the investigation of the seamless digitalization in construction, and especially the clarification of the interface between planning and production. In project C04 the information from all the projects of focus area C meshes. In the second funding period, Christoph Herrmann (TUBS / IWF) will join the project to extend the BIM models with controlled material flow models in order to carry out ecological assessments.
The effects associated with the implementation of innovative AM processes in the construction industry will be addressed (C06). In this context, the feedback with respect to element configuration and dimensions of the additively manufactured large-scale structural elements, and the fact that constructions are always immovable, are of central importance. The questions of whether a higher degree of prefabrication due to AMC is a suitable goal or whether in-situ production will keep being of major importance in construction will be addressed in this project.
Finally, future job profiles for skilled workers as well as technical regulations in the area of AMC will be investigated in project C07. This is important for creating the prerequisites for this new technology to be accepted in the construction industry. AMC creates new job opportunities with significantly higher skill levels than traditional construction jobs. Moreover, for the application of additive manufacturing processes in construction practice, the development of adapted technical standards is of essential importance.

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Project A 01

Approach Visuals Figure 2: 3D printing of prismatic specimens for bending tensile and compressive strength / Credit: Dreßler, iBMB TU Braunschweig Figure 3: De-powdering of a printed column / Credit:…

Project leaders

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Arno Kwade Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dirk Lowke

Contributors

M. Sc. Friedrich Herding Dr.-Ing. Inka Mai M. Sc. Niklas Meier Dr.-Ing. Harald Zetzener
Project A 02

Figure 1: Production cycle of SPI with WAAM reinforcement: I) application of the WAAM reinforcement, II) spreading of the next aggregate layer, III) intrusion of the cement paste in the target layer,…

Project leaders

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Christoph Gehlen Prof. Dr.-Ing. Arno Kwade Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael F. Zäh

Contributors

M. Sc. Leigh Duncan Hamilton Dr.-Ing. Thomas Kränkel M. Sc. Felix Riegger M. Sc. Alexander Straßer M. Sc. Andreas Wimmer
Project A 03

Networking with other projects Extrusion of Near-Nozzle Mixed Concrete –Individually Graded in Density and in Rate of 3D Fibre Reinforcement The gradation of material properties in concrete extrusion…

Project leaders

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Johannes Fottner Prof. Dr.-Ing. Christoph Gehlen

Contributors

M. Sc. Maximilian Dahlenburg M. Sc. Maximilian Hechtl Dipl.-Ing. Stephan Kessler Dr.-Ing. Thomas Kränkel
Project A 04

Networking with other projects Integrated Additive Manufacturing Processes for Reinforced Shotcrete 3D Printing (SC3DP) Elements with Precise Surface Quality Within this project, basic research on var…

Project leaders

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Dröder Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Kloft Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dirk Lowke

Contributors

M. Sc. Neira Babovic Dr.-Ing. Abtin Baghdadi M. Sc. Martin David M. Sc. Robin Dörrie M. Sc. Niklas Freund Dr.-Ing. Inka Mai PhD Aileen Vandenberg
Project A 05

Half-covered real-scale case study for the combination of Core Winding Reinforcement and Shotcrete 3D Printing. The reinforcement layout was derived from principle stress analysis (overlay on the left…

Project leaders

Prof. Dr. sc. ETH Zurich Dipl. Ing. M.A. AA Norman Hack Prof. Dr.-Ing. Christian Hühne

Contributors

M. Sc. Mohammad Bahar M. Sc. Stefan Gantner M. A. S. Noor Khader M. Sc. Tom Rothe
Project A 06

Shape-optimized tensegrity node manufactured by PBF-LB/M (vibratory ground and polished) Shape-optimized tensegrity node manufactured by PBF-LB/M (as-built with support structure) Typical microstructu…

Project leaders

Dr.-Ing. Christina Radlbeck Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael F. Zäh

Contributors

M. Sc. Johannes Diller M. Sc. Dorina Siebert M. Sc. David L. Wenzler M. Sc. Andreas Wimmer
Project A 07

Node with minimum wall thickness and restricted overhang as constraints for topology optimisation using self-organising systems Anchorage structure produced by WAAM Thin-walled structure with one-side…

Project leaders

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jonas Hensel Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Kloft Prof. Dr. sc. techn. Klaus Thiele

Contributors

Dr.-Ing. André Hälsig M. Sc. Hendrik Jahns Dipl.-Ing. Christoph Müller M. Sc. Johanna Müller Dr.-Ing. Julian Unglaub M. Eng. Ronny Scharf-Wildenhain
Project A 08

Networking with other projects Structural Timber by Individual Layer Fabrication (ILF) In project A08 a novel fabrication process named ‘individual layer fabrication (ILF)’ is being investigated, whic…

Project leaders

Dr. rer. nat. Frauke Bunzel Dr.-Ing. Klaudius Henke

Contributors

M. Sc. Carsten Aßhoff M. Sc. Birger Buschmann M. Sc. Daniel Talke
Project B 01

Networking with other projects Simulation of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Process for the Additive Manufacturing of Steel Parts Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is a process involving several lengt…

Project leaders

Prof. Dr. Laura De Lorenzis

Contributors

M. Sc. Oliver Boolakee Dr. Roland Kruse
Project B 02, Associated

Methods Networking with other projects Discrete Element Modelling of Concrete Additive Manufacturing Extrusion Technology In this project, a near-nozzle mixing and compacting system for concrete extru…

Project leaders

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Johannes Fottner

Contributors

Prof. André Katterfeld
Project B 03

Taylor-Couette simulation of Bingham Fluid Phase-field simulation of falling droplet Granular Particle Image velocimetry of jet Phase-field simulation of jet Networking with other projects Modelling a…

Project leaders

Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Martin Geier Prof. Dr.-Ing. Manfred Krafczyk

Contributors

Dr.-Ing. Konstantin Kutscher
Project B 04

Project Scope Website Path Planning Sensorization Networking with other projects Process Control and Adaptive Path Planning for Additive Manufacturing Processes Based on Industrial Robots with an Exte…

Project leaders

Dr.-Ing. André Hürkamp Prof. Dr.-Ing. Annika Raatz

Contributors

M. Sc. Virama Ekanayaka M. Sc. Lukas Lachmayer
Project B 05

Figure 1: Mobile part-based AM: Fabrication scenario of a stay-in-place formwork carried out by a mobile robot. Figure 2: Two mobile robotic systems; left system is equipped with clay extrusion setup….

Project leaders

Prof. Dr. sc. Kathrin ETH Dörfler

Contributors

M. Sc. Gido Dielemans
Project C 01

Networking with other projects Bridging Scales – From Geometric Part Details to Construction Elements Digital models for AM involve many different geometric scales. These scales start from micrometres…

Project leaders

PD. Dr.-Ing. habil. Stefan Kollmannsberger Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Ernst Rank

Contributors

M. Sc. Oguz Oztoprak

Project C 02

Vertex Morphing Applications, SiemensNX PlugIn, Carbody, AeroSpace Shape Opt. Topology Optimization of a Wing Box 3D-Printed Optimized Tensegrity Node, Made of Aluminum and Manufactured using Laser Po…

Project leaders

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Kai-Uwe Bletzinger

Contributors

Dr.-Ing. Reza Najian Asl Dr.-Ing. Roland Wüchner